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Eurobarometer: Oral Health in Europe


In February 2010, the European Commission published the results of the first Eurobarometer survey on the self perceived oral health of European citizens. The survey was conducted during October 2009 in the 27 Member States of the European Union and the three candidate countries. It is structured around 3 categories : the state of our teeth, dietary habits and dental check-ups and treatment.



EU Health Claims on Food Products


The EU Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods was adopted in December 2006. For the first time, the Member States have harmonised rules for the use of nutrition claims such as “low fat”, “high fibre” or health claims such as “toothfriendly”.



Toothfriendly Tested: Assessing the Cariogenic and Erosive Potential of Foods


The following list includes scientific references related to the "toothfriendly" claim and the adjoining "Happy Tooth" quality seal.


- De Paola D.P. (1986). Executive summary. Proceedings of scientific consensus conference on methods for assessment of the cariogenic potential of foods. J. Dent. Res. 65 (Spec. Iss.): 1540-1543.


- Firestone A.R., Imfeld T., Schiffer S. and Lutz F. (1987). Measurement of interdental plaque pH in humans with an indwelling glass pH electrode following a sucrose rinse: A long-term retrospective study. Caries Res., 21: 555-558.


- Igarashi K., Lee I.K. and Schachtele Ch.F. (1988). Effect of chewing-gum containing sodium bicarbonate on human interproximal plaque pH. J. Dent. Res., 67: 531-535.


- Igarashi K., Lee I.K. and Schachtele Ch.F. (1989). Comparison of in vivo human dental plaque pH changes within artificial fissures and at interproximal sites. Caries Res., 23: 417-422.


- Imfeld T. (1983). Identification of low caries risk dietary components. In: "Monographs in Oral Science". Vol. 11: 1-198. Myers H.M. (ed.), Karger, Basel.


- Imfeld T. Cariogenicity tests. Adv. Dent. Res., 8(2): 225-228, 1994.


- International Dental Federation (FDI) (2000). Consensus Statement on Diet of 2nd World Conference on Oral Health Promotion. Int. Dent. J., 50(3): 174.


- Jensen M.E. (1986). Effects of chewing sorbitol gum and paraffin on human interproximal plaque pH. Caries Res., 20: 503-509.


- Kandelman, D. (1997). Sugar, alternative sweeteners and meal frequency in relation to caries prevention: new perspectives. Br J Nutr. Apr;77 Suppl 1:S121-8.


- Larsen M.J. and Nyvad B. (1999). Enamel erosion by some soft drinks and orange juices relative to their pH, buffering effect and contents of calcium phosphate. Caries Res., 33: 81-87.


- Lingström P., Imfeld T. and Birkhed D. (1993). Comparison of three different methods for measurements of plaque-pH in humans after consumption of soft bread and potato chips. J. Dent. Res., 72: 865-870.


- Marshal, T. et al. (2003). Dental Caries and Beverage Consumption in Young Children. Pediatrics, Vol. 112 No. 3 Sept., pp. e184-e191.


- Olofsson M. and Bratthall D. (2003). Diet measures for Prevention or Control of Dental Caries. Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.


- Park K.K., Hernandez D., Schemehorn B.R., Katz B.P., Stookey G.K., Sanders P.G. and Butchko H.H. (1995). Effect of chewing gums on plaque pH after a sucrose challenge. J. Dent. Child., 62: 180-186.


- Pollard M.A. (1995). Potential cariogenicity of starches and fruits as assessed by the plaque-sampling method and an intraoral cariogenicity test. Caries Res., 29: 68-74.


- Pollard M.A., Imfeld T., Higham S.M., Agalamanyi E.A., Curzon M.E.J., Edgar W.M. and Borgia S. (1996). Acidogenic potential and total salivary carbohydrate content of expectorants following the consumption of some cereal-based foods and fruits. Caries Res., 30: 132-137.


- Riva Touger-Decker and Van Loveren C. (2003). Sugars and dental caries. Americal Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 78 (suppl) 881S-92S.


- Schachtele Ch.F. and Jensen M.E. (1981). Human plaque pH studies: estimating acidogenic potential of foods. Cereal Foods World, 26: 14-18.


- Schachtele Ch.F. et al. (1986). Human plaque acidity models - Working Group Consensus Report. J. Dent. Res. 65 (Spec. Iss.): 1530-1531.


- Stösser L., Tietze W., Künzel W. and Limberger K. (1990). Intra-orale pH-Messung zur Bestimmung des azidogenen Potentials von Nahrungsmitteln. Oralprophylaxe, 12: 145-153.


- Textbook of Cariology, A. Thylstrup and O. Fejerskov (eds.)(Chapter 8: Diet and dental caries), Munksgaard 1986.


- Yin M., Abbe K. and Yamada T. (1996). Acidogenic potential of human dental plaque exposed to general cough and cold medicated syrups currently available in Japan. Tohoku Univ. Dent. J., 15: 163-170.


- Zhang P., Abbe K. and Yamada T. (1995). Acidogenic potential on human dental plaque pH of throat lozenges available in Japan. Tohoku Univ. Dent. J., 14: 75-81.


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